Create documents that validate to published formal grammars.

Checkpoint 3.2

"Validating to a published formal grammar and declaring that validation at the beginning of a document lets the user know that the structure of the document is sound. It also lets the user agent know where to look for semantics if it needs to. The W3C Validation Service validates documents against a whole list of published grammars.

It is preferable to validate to W3C grammars." [13]

"A valid HTML document declares what version of HTML is used in the document. The document type declaration names the document type definition (DTD) in use for the document.

HTML 4.01 specifies three DTD, so authors must include one of the following document type declarations in their documents. The DTD vary in the elements they support.

The HTML 4.01 Strict DTD includes all elements and attributes that have not been deprecated or do not appear in frameset documents. For documents that use this DTD, use this document type declaration:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">

The HTML 4.01 Transitional DTD includes everything in the strict DTD plus deprecated elements and attributes (most of which concern visual presentation). For documents that use this DTD, use this document type declaration:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">

The HTML 4.01 Frameset DTD includes everything in the transitional DTD plus frames as well. For documents that use this DTD, use this document type declaration:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Frameset//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/frameset.dtd">

" [15]

A similar set of DTD exist for XHTML 1.0 (see [16]):


<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.dtd">


<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-transitional.dtd">


<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Frameset//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-frameset.dtd">

Another relative new document type is XHTML Basic DTD (see [17]). "The XHTML Basic document type includes the minimal set of modules required to be an XHTML host language document type, and in addition it includes images, forms, basic tables, and object support. It is designed for Web clients that do not support the full set of XHTML features; for example, Web clients such as mobile phones, PDAs, pagers, and settop boxes. The document type is rich enough for content authoring. [...] The goal of XHTML Basic is to serve as a common language supported by various kinds of user agents. [...] The motivation for XHTML Basic is to provide an XHTML document type that can be shared across communities (e.g. desktop, TV, and mobile phones), and that is rich enough to be used for simple content authoring. New community-wide document types can be defined by extending XHTML Basic in such a way that XHTML Basic documents are in the set of valid documents of the new document type. Thus an XHTML Basic document can be presented on the maximum number of Web clients." [17]

The XHTML Basic DOCTYPE declaration in your web pages must look like:

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML Basic 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-basic/xhtml-basic10.dtd">

Copyright © 2001-2003 by Rainer Hillebrand and Thomas Wierlemann