2.5.2.2.1. Do not use tables for layout unless the table makes sense when linearized. Otherwise, if the table does not make sense, provide an alternative equivalent (which may be a linearized version).

Checkpoint 5.3

"When designing a document or series of documents, content developers should strive first to identify the desired structure for their documents before thinking about how the documents will be presented to the user. Distinguishing the structure of a document from how the content is presented offers a number of advantages, including improved accessibility, manageability, and portability.

Identifying what is structure and what is presentation may be challenging at times. For instance, many content developers consider that a horizontal line communicates a structural division. This may be true for sighted users, but to unsighted users or users without graphical browsers, a horizontal line may have next to no meaning. For example, in HTML content developers should use the HTML 4.01 [15] heading elements (H1 - H6) to identify new sections. These may be complemented by visual or other cues such as horizontal rules, but should not be replaced by them.

The inverse holds as well: content developers should not use structural elements to achieve presentation effects. For instance in HTML, even though the BLOCKQUOTE element may cause indented text in some browsers, it is designed to identify a quotation, not create a presentation side-effect. BLOCKQUOTE elements used for indentation confuse users and search robots alike, who expect the element to be used to mark up block quotations.

The separation of presentation from structure in XML documents is inherent. [...]" [12]

"Authors should use style sheets for layout and positioning. However, when it is necessary to use a table for layout, the table must linearize in a readable order. When a table is linearized, the contents of the cells become a series of paragraphs (e.g., down the page) one after another. Cells should make sense when read in row order and should include structural elements (that create paragraphs, headings, lists, etc.) so the page makes sense after linearization.

Also, when using tables to create a layout, do not use structural markup to create visual formatting. For example, the TH (table header) element, is usually displayed visually as centered, and bold. If a cell is not actually a header for a row or column of data, use style sheets or formatting attributes of the element." [13]

"Layout, positioning, layering, and alignment should be done through style sheets (notably by using CSS floats and absolute positioning):

Copyright © 2001-2003 by Rainer Hillebrand and Thomas Wierlemann